Sahelanthropus tchadensis Orrorin tugenensis Ardipithecus ramidus Australopithecus anamensis Australopithecus afarensis Kenyanthropus platyops Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus garhi Australopithecus sediba Australopithecus aethiopicus Australopithecus robustus Australopithecus boisei Homo habilis Homo georgicus Homo erectus Homo ergaster Homo antecessor Homo heidelbergensis Homo neanderthalensis Homo floresiensis Homo sapiens sapiens Some scientists use a broader definition of Hominidae which includes the great apes, and instead call the group I am discussing "hominins".
The field of science which studies the human fossil record is known as paleoanthropology.It is the intersection of the disciplines of paleontology (the study of ancient lifeforms) and anthropology (the study of humans).The species here are listed roughly in order of appearance in the fossil record (note that this ordering is not meant to represent an evolutionary sequence), except that the robust australopithecines are kept together. Australopithecus, Homo) which is always capitalized, and a specific name (e.g. Within the text, genus names are often omitted for brevity.Each species has a type specimen which was used to define it.This species was named in July 2002 from fossils discovered in Chad in Central Africa (Brunet et al. It is the oldest known hominid or near-hominid species, dated at between 6 and 7 million years old.
This species is known from a nearly complete cranium nicknamed Toumai, and a number of fragmentary lower jaws and teeth. tchadensis has many primitive apelike features, such as the small brainsize, along with others, such as the brow ridges and small canine teeth, which are characteristic of later hominids.